Polišenská, K., Chiat, S., & Roy, P. (2015). Sentence repetition: What does the task measure? International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 50(1), 106-118. DOI: doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12126 Figure 1 shows the average values of the three levels of the SR task. A unilateral repeated measurement ANOVA with factor level showed a statistically significant main effect of Level, F(1,485.28.214) = 54,284, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.741. Bonferroni pair-corrected t-tests showed that level 1 (M = 85.7143, SD = 13.759) has statistically higher accuracy than level 2 (M = 75.25, SD = 18.812; p < 0.001) and level 3 (M = 58.50, SD = 21.77; p < 0.001) and that level 2 also has statistically higher accuracy than level 3 (p < 0.001).2 Light verbs such as کردن (gimbal) "do, make" are often used with nouns for form what is considered a compound verb, a light verb construction, or a complex predicate. For example, the word گفتگو (goftegu) means "conversation", while گفتگو کردن (goftegu kardan) means "to speak". A light verb can be added after a noun, adjective, preposition, or prepositional sentence to form a compound verb. Only the light verb (e.B. gimbal) is conjugated; The previous word is not affected: the relative clauses in Farsi are formed with the complementary ke invariant. Ke does not match the noun phrase it modifies and is not labeled for the animation, genre, or number of names it modifies (Taghvaipour, 2004). Subject-related sentences follow the subject, as indicated in (11), while object relativative sentences follow the object, as indicated in the object relativity clause branched to the right in (12a) and in the object relativity clause embedded in the middle in (12b). Possession is often expressed by adding suffixes to names; The same suffixes can also be used as object pronouns.
For the third person, these are ambiguous (unlike English); For example, کتابش (ketābaš) could mean “his book” or “his book”. The final aspect of this study focused on the effects of age and language history on SR. We found that a child`s overall use of Farsi had a strong positive correlation with their overall score on the Farsi SR task. This is consistent with Chondrogianni and Marinis (2011), who showed that external factors among Turkish-English bilinguals, such as the use of English at home, were more strongly correlated with morphosyntactic mirrors than with internal factors. However, the current results are somewhat inconsistent with those of Armon-Lotem et al. (2011) Results showing that the performance of bilingual children in SR tasks has been influenced by external and internal factors, the latter having a greater impact on performance. In the present study, AoO had no effect on performance. However, it is important to note that there was very little variance in Farsi`s AoO and the sample size was small. These are the likely reasons for the lack of correlation with AoO and the gap with Armon-Lotem et al.
(2011). Rasekh, M. (2017). Persian Klitik: doubling and agreement. Zeitschrift für Neuere Sprachen, 24(1), 16-33. AoO is defined as the age at which the child is first exposed to a language. Two children were bilingual at the same time and the other 18 were sequentially bilingual. The overall use of the language is based on the fact that the use of the language by children at home is added separately for each language.
For this reason, the addition of the use of language in both languages does not result in a single language (see Table 1 below). Seven of the 19 children were exposed to a third (French) or fourth (Turkish or Arabic), but their language skills in these languages were low due to the parents` report. Figure 2 shows the average values between the seven level 1 structures. Repeated unilateral measurement of ANOVA with factor structure showed no statistically significant main effect of structure (F(4,01,76,20) = 0.87, p = 0.484, η2 = 0.04). Figure 4 shows the average values between the five level 3 structures. Repeated unilateral measurement of ANOVA with factor structure showed a significant main effect of structure (F(4.76) = 5.89, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.24). Paired t-tests using Bonferroni correction showed that relativistic sets of objects with straight branching (M = 41.25, SD = 26) were less accurate than subject relative clauses (M = 65, SD = 28.562; p = 0.015) and subordinate clauses (M = 70, SD = 27.63; p = 0.001). The form of imperfection is created by taking the past tense as described above and prefixing it with "می" (mid-), i.e.
می خوردم (mixordam) “I ate”, “I ate earlier”. This time can also have a conditional meaning: “I would eat”, “I would have eaten”. You know what, let me draw a quick CONTRACT from the Internet – All nouns can be plural by the suffix ها-‹hā›, which follows a noun and does not change its form. Plural forms are used less frequently than in English and are not used by numbers or زیاد ziād `many` or (بسیاری) besyār(ī). -hā is only used if the noun has no numbers in front of it and is defined. Several studies using SR tasks with bilingual children have examined the effects of internal (test age, AoO, LoE) and external (parental education, language use and language richness) factors on children`s performance in L1 and/or L2. Previous research has shown that internal factors are more closely related to vocabulary measures, while external factors are more closely related to morphosyntactic measurements. To examine the relationship between children`s performance in SR tasks with internal and external factors, Armon-Lotem et al. (2011) recruited bilingual Russian-German and Russian-Hebrew children and examined what factors contributed to children`s performance in SR tasks. The results showed that AoO was negatively correlated with the performance of L2 vocabulary and SR tasks, while LoE was positively correlated with the performance of these two tasks. The study also showed that parents` education/occupation correlated positively with L1 and L2 only for vocabulary tasks.
In addition, the study by Flekstein et al. (2018) showed that high performance was significant in SR tasks and positively correlated with LoE for majority language, while Tuller et al. (2018) pointed out that the most important predictor of accurate performance in SR tasks was positive early development. Finally, Thordardottir and Brandeker (2013) examined monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual French-English children (five years old). Bilingual participants were exposed to varying degrees of English and French. The children were tested with SR and non-word repetition tasks and it was found that LoE was more positively correlated with the former than with the latter. SR tasks assess morphosyntax and verbal working memory (Conti-Ramsden et al., 2001; Stokes et al., 2006) and provide information on syntactic aspects of sentencing (Polišenská, 2011). In SR tasks, individuals are required to repeat sentences that have been communicated to them verbatim. Sentences should be relatively long to avoid a passive echo (parrot) of the sentence, as this would not provide essential information about the participant`s language skills.
Repeating sentences of different lengths forces children to use their grammatical system, allowing researchers to better understand their implicit knowledge (Polišenská et al., 2015). If the children have not acquired the specific grammatical structure that is triggered, they will not be able to repeat the sentences. Therefore, grammatical competence is at the heart of what SR measures. Compared to other assessments, SR tests are quick and easy to perform, provide better control over management and analysis, and can be used for preschoolers (Seeff-Gabriel et al., 2010). Dom/ra is always postnominal. Specificity and certainty are the two key elements that determine whether a name is marked with /ra. It is mandatory if it is associated with a demonstrative and/or own name (Gavarró & Heshmati, 2014), but it does not occur with non-identifiable and non-specific names (Safari & Mahrpour, 2015). In the colloquially spoken variety, /ra can turn into /ro or/o, as in (2).
In Farsi, all subordinate clauses are finite, are indicative or subjunctive, and are usually preceded by the optional relative pronoun “ke” (that/which) (Mahootian, 1997). In the present study, we included auxiliary temporal subordinate clauses, as in (9). Table 3 shows that the overall use of Farsi is positively correlated with children`s performance in the SR task. Persian is similar to English in that the second-person pronoun of the plural `šomā` is used as a polite greeting. .