123 Agreement Upsc

After the finalization of the terms of Accord 123 on July 27, 2007,[28] it ran into problems due to fierce opposition from the communist allies of India`s ruling United Progressive Alliance. [29] The government survived a vote of confidence in Parliament on July 22, 2008 by 275 votes to 256 in the context of defectors from certain parties. [30] The agreement has also met with opposition from non-proliferation activists, anti-nuclear organizations, and some states within the Nuclear Suppliers Group. [31] [32] In February 2008, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice declared that any agreement was “consistent with the obligations of the Hyde Act.” [33] The legislation was signed on October 8, 2008. Dr. Kaveh L. Afrasiabi, who taught political science at tehran University, argued that the deal would set a new precedent for other states, adding that the deal represented a diplomatic blessing for Tehran. [150] Ali Ashgar Soltanieh, Iran`s deputy director general for international and political affairs,[151] complained that the deal could undermine the credibility, integrity, and universality of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Pakistan contends that the safeguards agreement “threatens to increase the chances of a nuclear arms race in the subcontinent.” [152] Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi suggested that his country should be considered for such an agreement,[153] and Pakistan also stated that the same process “should be available as a model for other states not covered by the NPT.” [154] On July 19, 2010, United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton countered Pakistan`s statements by saying that Pakistan`s turbulent history of nuclear proliferation “raises red flags” regarding nuclear cooperation with Pakistan. [155] Israel cites the Indo-U.S.

However, the deal remains largely in limbo. In the run-up to the US president`s visit, efforts to find a solution to the impasse have gained momentum. That. Agreement 123 signed between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as the U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Agreement, or U.S.-India Nuclear Agreement. [1] The framework for this agreement was a joint statement by then Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and then US President George W. Bush on September 18. July 2005, during which India agreed to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities and place all its civilian nuclear facilities under the safety precautions of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and, in return, the United States agreed to work towards full civilian nuclear cooperation with India. [2] This agreement between the United States and India took more than three years to materialize because it had to go through several complex phases, including the change of American government. national law, in particular the Atomic Energy Act of 1954[3], a plan for civil-military nuclear separation in India, an Indo-IAEA safeguards agreement (inspections) and the granting of an exemption to India by the Nuclear Suppliers Group, an export control cartel formed primarily in response to India`s first nuclear test in 1974. In its final form, the agreement places nuclear facilities that India has identified as “civilian” under permanent safeguards and allows for broad civil nuclear cooperation, while excluding the transfer of “sensitive” equipment and technology, including civilian enrichment and reprocessing items, even under IAEA safeguards.

In particular, some parts of the agreement that provide for securing a fuel supply to India or allowing India to maintain a strategic reserve of nuclear fuel appear diametrically opposed to what the Indian parliament expected from the deal: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh`s statement to Parliament is in stark contradiction to the Bush administration`s communication to the House Foreign Affairs Committee. which stipulates that India will not be allowed to stockpile nuclear fuel that undermine US influence to reintroduce sanctions. To clarify this point, he says That Accord 123 does not conflict with the provision of the Hyde Act – the little-known “Barack Obama Amendment” – that the supply of nuclear fuel should be “adequate with reasonable operational requirements.” The “strategic reserve”, which is crucial to India`s nuclear programme, is therefore a non-departure. [75] On September 28, 2008, the U.S. House of Representatives voted 298 to 117 in favor of the Indo-U.S. nuclear deal. [163] On October 1, 2008, the U.S. Senate voted 86 to 13 in favor of the Indo-U.S. nuclear deal. [164] The Arms Control Association stated that the agreement did not make it clear that an Indian nuclear test would result in the cessation of nuclear trade by the United States; [164] However, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said that any nuclear test by India would result in the “most serious consequences,” including the automatic cessation of U.S. cooperation, as well as a number of other sanctions.

[165] As of 2015, the agreement had not yet been fully implemented. [19] [20] [21] However, there have been other conflicting reports on China`s position. The Hindu reported that although China has expressed a desire to include stricter language in the final draft, it has informed India of its intention to support the agreement. [131] In an interview with the Hindustan Times, Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Hu Zhengyue said that “China understands India`s needs for civil nuclear energy and related international cooperation.” [132] Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi told CNN-IBN in India, “We did nothing to block it [the deal]. We have played a constructive role. We have also taken a positive and responsible position and a security agreement has been reached to make the facts more eloquent. than certain reports”. [133] At a press conference in New Delhi, Yang added, “The policy was established much earlier. When it was able to reach a consensus, China had already made it clear in one way or another that we had no problem with the [NSG] statement. [134] Yang stressed the importance of China-India relations, noting, “Let`s work together [India and China] to go beyond any doubt and build a stronger relationship between us. [135] The Agreement of 123 sets out the terms of bilateral civil nuclear cooperation and requires separate approval from the U.S. Congress and Indian ministers.

The agreement will also help India meet its target of increasing its nuclear power capacity by 25,000 MW by 2020 through imports of nuclear reactors and fuels. [27] July 27, 2007: Conclusion of negotiations on a bilateral agreement between the United States and India. 8. October 2008: President Bush signs a bill to pass the historic civil nuclear agreement between the United States and India. ==References=====External links===The House of Representatives passed the bill approving the agreement on September 28, 2008. [12] Two days later, India and France signed a similar nuclear pact, making France the first country to have such an agreement with India. [13] On October 1, 2008, the U.S. Senate also approved the Civil Nuclear Agreement that allows India to buy and sell nuclear fuel and technology in the United States. [14] [15] United States. . .

.

Comments are closed.

Hours

Monday-Saturday 12-7
Walkins Welcome

2165 Wrightsville Ave,
Wilmington, NC 28403
910-343-5233

Monday-Saturday 12-7
Walkins Welcome

2165 Wrightsville Ave,
Wilmington, NC 28403
910-343-5233

Follow us!

 

Click to Download Printable Directions

Traveling from the North:

Hwy. 40 East towards Martin Luther King Bypass. Take a right onto the MLK Bypass towards downtown Wilmington. Stay straight on the bypass heading into downtown Wilmington, this will turn into 3rd St. Take 3rd St. through downtown heading towards Dawson St. Take a left on Dawson St. Follow Dawson St. until it dead ends into Wrightsville Ave. Take a left onto Wrightsville Ave. We are the second building on the right after the light.

Traveling from the West:

Hwy. 74 East. Cross over bridge into Wilmington. Continue straight onto Dawson Street after crossing the bridge. Follow Dawson St. until it dead ends into Wrightsville Ave. Take a left onto Wrightsville Ave. We are the second building on the right after the light.

Traveling from the South:

Take 421 North towards downtown Wilmington. Take a right onto Dawson Street. Follow Dawson St. until it dead ends into Wrightsville Ave. Take a left onto Wrightsville Ave. We are the second building on the right after the light.

Traveling from the East:

Take the Martin Luther King Bypass towards downtown Wilmington. Stay straight on the bypass heading into downtown Wilmington, this will turn into 3rd St. Take 3rd St. through downtown heading towards Dawson St. Take a left on Dawson St. Follow Dawson St. until it dead ends into Wrightsville Ave. Take a left onto Wrightsville Ave. We are the second building on the right after the light.